Hydrogen fluoride is a colorless gas; its melting point is -83.1 ° C, its boiling point is 19.54 ° C, and its gas density is 0.991 g / l. Below 80 ° C, it becomes an association (HF) n due to the existence of hydrogen bonds between molecules. Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride is extremely acidic, and only 100% sulfuric acid can exceed it. Less active, when a small amount of water vapor is present, it shows higher chemical activity. Liquid hydrogen fluoride has a high dielectric constant, is an excellent solvent, can dissolve many inorganic and organic compounds, and is an important industrial chemical product. Hydrogen fluoride and its aqueous solutions are toxic and easily deform bones and teeth. Hydrofluoric acid can be absorbed through the skin by the mucous membranes, the respiratory tract and the gastrointestinal tract. It should be treated immediately after poisoning and taken to a doctor.
Uses of hydrogen fluoride
- Mainly used as raw materials for fluorine-containing compounds, but also used in the manufacture of aluminum fluoride and cryolite, semiconductor surface etching and as a catalyst for alkylation
- Used as a strong acidic corrosive in the electronics industry, and can be used in combination with nitric acid, acetic acid, ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide.
- Used as an analytical reagent, and also used in the preparation of high-purity fluoride. It is a necessary source of fluorine for fluorine salt, fluorine refrigerant, fluorine plastic, fluorine rubber, fluorine medicine and pesticide.
- It is the raw material for producing the refrigerant “Freon”, fluorine-containing resin, organic fluoride and fluorine. It can be used as a catalyst for organic synthesis such as alkylation, polymerization, condensation, isomerization in chemical production. It is also used for corroded formations when mining certain deposits, and for the extraction of rare earth elements and radioactive elements. In the atomic energy industry and nuclear weapon production, it is the raw material for the production of uranium hexafluoride, and also the raw material for the production of rocket fuel and additives. It can also be used to corrode glass and impregnate wood.
- Forthe manufacture of organic or inorganic fluorides, such as fluorocarbons, sodium fluoride, aluminum fluoride, uranium hexafluoride and cryolite. Also used for stainless steel, non-ferrous metal pickling, glass instrument scale, glassware and mirror engraving, lettering, as well as glassware polishing, frosted bulbs and general bulb treatment, metal graphite milk and silicon purification, metal castings sand removal, graphite ash Removal, semiconductor (germanium, silicon) manufacturing. Also used for dye synthesis. It is also used in electroplating, reagents, fermentation, ceramic processing, and the manufacture of fluororesins and flame retardants.
- Used for etching glass, pickling metals, making inorganic fluoride salt products and chemical reagents.
- 7. Used in the atomic energy industry, elemental fluorine, fluoride, can also be used as catalysts, fluorinating agents, etc. for the production of organic or inorganic fluorides, but also for stainless steel, non-ferrous metal pickling, glass frosting and pickling , Frosted bulbs, etc.
Hydrogen fluoride detection
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