Shopping Cart

The use principle of vacuum gauge controller

The meaning of vacuum refers to the state of gas below one atmospheric pressure in a given space, which is a
A physical phenomenon. In vacuum technology, the vacuum system refers to the atmosphere and generally refers to a specific space
Part of the substance inside is discharged, so that the pressure is less than a standard atmospheric pressure, we generally call it
This space is in a vacuum or vacuum state. Vacuum commonly used Pascal (Pascal) Tor (Torr)
Millibar (mbar), etc. as a unit of pressure
Vacuum gauge (Vacuum Gauge), also known as vacuum gauge, vacuum gauge, is to measure vacuum
Degree or low pressure instrument. Generally, the change of a certain physical effect of the gas under different pressures is used.
The measurement of air pressure is carried out. It is widely used in scientific research and industrial production. Measure according to vacuum gauge
The different physical mechanisms used in the principle can divide the main vacuum gauges into three categories

They are vacuum using mechanical properties, using gas dynamics and using charged particle effects.
count.
When electrons fly in an electric field, they obtain energy from the electric field. If they collide with gas molecules, the gas molecules will be ionized with a certain probability to produce positive ions and secondary electrons. The ionization probability is related to the electron energy. The number of positive ions generated by electrons during the flight is proportional to the gas density n, and at a certain temperature, it is proportional to the gas pressure p. Therefore, the degree of vacuum can be indicated according to the magnitude of the ion current. This is how the ionization vacuum gauge works.
The ionization vacuum gauge that is heated by the filament to provide the electron source is called the hot cathode ionization vacuum gauge. There are many types, each with different characteristics and different pressure measurement ranges.
By changing the electrode structure of the gauge and the electrical parameters of each electrode, and using anti-oxidation materials to make the cathode (such as iridium wire coated with yttrium oxide), the upper limit of linear measurement can be increased. The high pressure ionization vacuum gauge is made, and the upper limit of pressure measurement pmax can reach more than 100Pa. Figure 9 shows the DL-5-gauge electrode structure; Figure lO shows the DL- 8-gauge electrode structure.
The grid-shaped anode is bombarded by electrons to generate X-rays, and the ion collector receives this ray to generate photoelectron emission, forming a photoelectric background current Ix that is independent of pressure. Reducing Ix can reduce the lower limit of linear pressure measurement pmin, and the following four measures can be taken:
(1) Reduce the area of ​​the ion collector irradiated by the soft X-ray from the geometric structure of the electric plate. This is the design idea of ​​the B-A ionization gauge;
(2) Place an electrode (suppressor) with a negative potential relative to the ion collector near the ion collector. The photoelectrons emitted from the surface of the ion collector can be folded back by the electric field to eliminate the background current. This method is called photoelectron Suppression methods, such as suppression of ionization gauges;
(3) This is a method of subtracting the background photocurrent from the ion collector current, called the ion current modulation method, such as modulating the B-A ionization gauge;
(4) The background pressure indication px corresponding to the background photocurrent Ix is inversely proportional to the gauge coefficient K, so increasing the gauge coefficient K can reduce the lower limit of measurement pressure pmin such as ballistic gauges and hot cathode magnetron ionization gauges.
In various vacuum and pressure measurement systems, it is necessary to clearly understand the meaning of different pressure indicators.
The unit of measurement usually used for vacuum measurement is Torr, which is equal to 1mmHg. It represents the atmospheric pressure required to increase the height of the mercury sinking column by 1.0mm. A standard atmospheric pressure is equal to 760 Torr. In the vacuum measurement of some vacuum systems, the derivative unit of Torr or 1/1000 Torr is used. The vacuum degree greater than 1.0 mTorr is usually expressed in scientific notation (for example, 5.0E-06 Torr). Vacuum and meteorological measurement in vacuum systems commonly used in Europe and Asia usually divide the bar graph into 1/1000 to generate milli Bar (mbar).
The commonly used pressure metric in the United States is psi or “pounds per square inch”. Using this metric, the measured value of atmospheric pressure at sea level is 14.69 psi. For comparison, pressure measurements in Europe and Asia define atmospheric pressure as 1.0 bar. Another indicator is “water height in inches”, which is usually used to report the air pressure in the US weather forecast. The unit refers to the height of the underwater water column supported by atmospheric pressure. Using this metric, the atmospheric pressure is 406.8 inches of water column (at 4°C), and sometimes this unit of measurement is used for vacuum measurement in industrial processes.
The international unit measurement of pressure is Pascal (abbreviated as Pa), named after the French mathematician and physicist Blaise Pascal. It is defined as a measure of force per unit area, equal to one newton per square meter. The atmospheric pressure in SI units is 1.01325E+05 Pa. Some air pressure measurements are usually reported in kilopascals (kPa).

 

Types of vacuum gauges

Modern vacuum gauges

Vacuum gauge diagram

Vacuum gauges pdf

Vacuum gauge vs pressure gauge

81 comments

  1. Need cash? Launch this robot and see what it can. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  2. Join the society of successful people who make money here. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  3. We know how to increase your financial stability. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  4. discount cialis Cancer treatments reduce the number of immune cells able to fight infection

  5. Even a child knows how to make money. Do you? Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  6. This robot will help you to make hundreds of dollars each day. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  7. The fastest way to make your wallet thick is found. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  8. Find out about the easiest way of money earning. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  9. Small investments can bring tons of dollars fast. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  10. Find out about the easiest way of money earning. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  11. Financial robot is a great way to manage and increase your income. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  12. Looking for additional money? Try out the best financial instrument. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  13. Small investments can bring tons of dollars fast. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  14. Make $1000 from $1 in a few minutes. Launch the financial robot now. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  15. Make money in the internet using this Bot. It really works! Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  16. Financial Robot is #1 investment tool ever. Launch it! Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  17. Start making thousands of dollars every week. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  18. This robot will help you to make hundreds of dollars each day. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  19. Trust your dollar to the Robot and see how it grows to $100. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  20. Small investments can bring tons of dollars fast. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  21. Earning money in the Internet is easy if you use Robot. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  22. Automatic robot is the best start for financial independence. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  23. Make your computer to be you earning instrument. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  24. Your computer can bring you additional income if you use this Robot. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  25. No worries if you are fired. Work online. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  26. Turn $1 into $100 instantly. Use the financial Robot. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  27. Buy everything you want earning money online. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  28. Making money is very easy if you use the financial Robot. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  29. Small investments can bring tons of dollars fast. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  30. The best online investment tool is found. Learn more! Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  31. Need money? Earn it without leaving your home. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  32. Check out the newest way to make a fantastic profit. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  33. Have no money? Earn it online. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  34. Automatic robot is the best start for financial independence. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  35. This unique position allows them to process and respond to signals from their neighboring cells generating functional responses that are critical for different central nervous system CNS 36 hour cialis online Domcheck SM, Bradbury A, Garber JE, et al Multiplex genetic testing for cancer susceptibility Out on the high wire without a net

  36. Looking for an easy way to make money? Check out the financial robot. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  37. Try out the best financial robot in the Internet. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  38. Provide your family with the money in age. Launch the Robot! Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  39. Still not a millionaire? The financial robot will make you him! Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  40. Try out the best financial robot in the Internet. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  41. The best way for everyone who rushes for financial independence. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  42. Launch the best investment instrument to start making money today. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  43. Check out the new financial tool, which can make you rich. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  44. The financial Robot is the most effective financial tool in the net! Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  45. Robot is the best solution for everyone who wants to earn. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  46. One click of the robot can bring you thousands of bucks. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  47. Have no money? It’s easy to earn them online here. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  48. Even a child knows how to make $100 today with the help of this robot. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  49. Need money? Earn it without leaving your home. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  50. Wow! This Robot is a great start for an online career. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  51. Thousands of bucks are guaranteed if you use this robot. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  52. Even a child knows how to make $100 today. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  53. This robot will help you to make hundreds of dollars each day. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  54. This robot will help you to make hundreds of dollars each day. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  55. Buy everything you want earning money online. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  56. Make yourself rich in future using this financial robot. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  57. Быстрый и качественный [url=https://remontnoutbukovacer.ru/]ремонт батареи ноутбука acer[/url] по выгодным ценам в Москве и области. Лучшие специалисты в городе по ремонту ноутбуков

  58. Make dollars just sitting home. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  59. Let the Robot bring you money while you rest. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  60. Make thousands of bucks. Financial robot will help you to do it! Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  61. Even a child knows how to make $100 today. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  62. Online earnings are the easiest way for financial independence. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  63. The best online job for retirees. Make your old ages rich. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  64. Attention! Financial robot may bring you millions! Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  65. Spot on with this write-up, I really think this web site needs far more consideration. I抣l probably be again to learn much more, thanks for that info.

  66. Need money? Earn it without leaving your home. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  67. The huge income without investments is available, now! Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  68. The following time I read a weblog, I hope that it doesnt disappoint me as much as this one. I mean, I do know it was my option to read, however I actually thought youd have one thing fascinating to say. All I hear is a bunch of whining about one thing that you can fix if you werent too busy looking for attention.

  69. This robot can bring you money 24/7. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  70. Attention! Here you can earn money online! Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  71. I’m often to running a blog and i actually admire your content. The article has actually peaks my interest. I am going to bookmark your website and keep checking for brand spanking new information.

  72. They provided comments about its layout, which were similar to the feedback of the patients the images are too large, the front page is not clear, and I do not understand the navigational options of the website cialis without a prescription deferasirox increases levels of rasagiline by affecting hepatic enzyme CYP1A2 metabolism

  73. Small investments can bring tons of dollars fast. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  74. Robot never sleeps. It makes money for you 24/7. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  75. The fastest way to make your wallet thick is found. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  76. There may be noticeably a bundle to find out about this. I assume you made certain nice points in options also.

  77. you could have an awesome weblog here! would you prefer to make some invite posts on my weblog?

  78. Financial independence is what this robot guarantees. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  79. The online financial Robot is your key to success. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

  80. The fastest way to make you wallet thick is here. Telegram – @Cryptaxbot

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Free Worldwide shipping

On all orders above $50

Easy 30 days returns

30 days money back guarantee

International Warranty

Offered in the country of usage

100% Secure Checkout

PayPal / MasterCard / Visa